Antibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure-Activity Study

Pharmacists and chemists have found another use for the multipurpose cannabis as a source of antibacterial chemicals for multidrug resistant bacteria. Ironically, inhaling cannabis is known to damage the lung’s ability to fend off invading pathogens, but the ingredients in cannabis, particularly the cannabinoids, have antiseptic properties. Although scattered research has been conducted since the 1950s, no comprehensive study existed that relates the structure of cannabinoids with antibacterial activity. Giovanni Appendino, Simon Gibbons, and coworkers attempted to remedy that problem by examining the activity of five common cannabinoids and their synthetic derivatives.


Five of the most common cannabinoids.

All five cannabinoids (THC, CBD, CBG, CBC, and CBN) were potent against bacteria. Notably, they performed well against bacteria that were known to be multidrug resistant, like the strains of MRSA that plagued U.K. hospitals. CBD and CBG have the most potential for consumer use because they are nonpsychotropic.

Besides identifying antibacterial capability, the researchers wanted to figure out why these cannabinoids are so good at killing bacteria. They obviously are very effective at specifically targeting some vital process in the bacteria. Unfortunately, even after extensive work at modifying the cannabinoids and comparing their activities, that targeting mechanism remains a mystery. The scientists were able to figure out that the position of the n-pentyl chain (orange) relative to the terpenoid moiety (blue) serves to control lipid affinity.

These cannabinoids are promising enough to warrant rigorous clinical trials. They are applicable as topical antiseptics, biodegradable antibacterial compounds for cosmetics, and systematic antibacterial agents.

 

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Role of endocannabinoid signaling in anxiety and depression.

Abstract

Cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands are located throughout the limbic, or “emotional,” brain, where they modulate synaptic neurotransmission. Converging preclinical and clinical data suggest a role for endogenous cannabinoid signaling in the modulation of anxiety and depression. Augmentation of endocannabinoid signaling (ECS) has anxiolytic effects, whereas blockade or genetic deletion of CB₁ receptors has anxiogenic properties. Augmentation of ECS also appears to have anti-depressant actions, and in some assays blockade and genetic deletion of CB₁ receptors produces depressive phenotypes. These data provide evidence that ECS serves in an anxiolytic, and possibly anti-depressant, role. These data suggest novel approaches to treatment of affective disorders which could include enhancement of endogenous cannabinoid signaling, and warrant cautious use of CB₁ receptor antagonists in patients with pre-existing affective disorders.

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20 Medical Studies That Prove Cannabis Can Cure Cancer

Brain Cancer
1. A study published in the British Journal of Cancer, conducted by the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at Complutense University in Madrid, this study determined that Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other cannabinoids inhibit tumour growth. They were responsible for the first clinical study aimed at assessing cannabinoid antitumoral action. Cannabinoid delivery was safe and was achieved with zero psychoactive effects. THC was found to decrease tumour cells in two out of the nine patients.

2. A study published in The Journal of Neuroscience examined the biochemical events in both acute neuronal damage and in slowly progressive, neurodegenerative diseases. They conducted a magnetic resonance imaging study that looked at THC (the main active compound in marijuana) and found that it reduced neuronal injury in rats. The results of this study provide evidence that the cannabinoid system can serve to protect the brain against neurodegeneration.

3. A study published in The Journal of Pharmacology And Experimental Therapeutics already acknowledged the fact that cannabinoids have been shown to possess antitumor properties. This study examined the effect of cannabidiol (CBD, non psychoactive cannabinoid compound) on human glioma cell lines. The addition of cannabidiol led to a dramatic drop in the viability of glioma cells. Glioma is the word used to describe brain tumour. The study concluded that cannabidiol was able to produce a significant antitumor activity.

4. A study published in the journal Molecular Cancer Therapeutics outlines how brain tumours are highly resistant to current anticancer treatments, which makes it crucial to find new therapeutic strategies aimed at improving the poor prognosis of patients suffering from this disease. This study also demonstrated the reversal of tumour activity in Glioblastoma multiforme.

Breast Cancer
5. A study published in the US National Library of Medicine, conducted by the California Pacific Medical Centre determined that cannabidiol (CBD) inhibits human breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion. They also demonstrated that CBD significantly reduces tumour mass.

6. A study published in The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics determined that THC as well as cannabidiol dramatically reduced breast cancer cell growth. They confirmed the potency and effectiveness of these compounds.

7. A study published in the Journal Molecular Cancer showed that THC reduced tumour growth and tumour numbers. They determined that cannabinoids inhibit cancer cell proliferation, induce cancer cell apoptosis and impair tumour angiogenesis (all good things). This study provides strong evidence for the use of cannabinoid based therapies for the management of breast cancer.

8. A study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) determined that cannabinoids inhibit human breast cancer cell proliferation.

Lung Cancer
9. A study published in the journal Oncogene, by Harvard Medical Schools Experimental Medicine Department determined that THC inhibits epithelial growth factor induced lung cancer cell migration and more. They go on to state that THC should be explored as novel therapeutic molecules in controlling the growth and metastasis of certain lung cancers.

10. A study published by the US National Library of Medicine by the Institute of Toxicology and Pharmacology, from the Department of General Surgery in Germany determined that cannabinoids inhibit cancer cell invasion. Effects were confirmed in primary tumour cells from a lung cancer patient. Overall, data indicated that cannabinoids decrease cancer cell invasiveness.

11. A study published by the US National Library of Medicine, conducted by Harvard Medical School investigated the role of cannabinoid receptors in lung cancer cells. They determined its effectiveness and suggested that it should be used for treatment against lung cancer cells.

Prostate Cancer
12. A study published in the US National Library of Medicine illustrates a decrease in prostatic cancer cells by acting through cannabinoid receptors.

13. A study published in the US National Library of Medicine outlined multiple studies proving the effectiveness of cannabis on prostate cancer.

14. Another study published by the US National Library of Medicine determined that clinical testing of CBD against prostate carcinoma is a must. That cannabinoid receptor activation induces prostate carcinoma cell apoptosis. They determined that cannabidiol significantly inhibited cell viability.

Blood Cancer
15. A study published in the journal Molecular Pharmacology recently showed that cannabinoids induce growth inhibition and apoptosis in matle cell lymphoma. The study was supported by grants from the Swedish Cancer Society, The Swedish Research Council and the Cancer Society in Stockholm.

16. A study published in the International Journal of Cancer also determined and illustrated that cannabinoids exert antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects in various types of cancer and in mantle cell lymphoma.

17. A study published in the US National Library of Medicine conducted by the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology by Virginia Commonwealth University determined that cannabinoids induce apoptosis in leukemia cells.

Oral Cancer
18. A study published by the US National Library of Medicine results show cannabinoids are potent inhibitors of cellular respiration and are toxic to highly malignant oral Tumours.

Liver Cancer
19. A study published by the US National Library of Medicine determined that that THC reduces the viability of human HCC cell lines (Human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line) and reduced the growth.

Pancreatic Cancer
20. A study published in The American Journal of Cancer determined that cannabinoid receptors are expressed in human pancreatic tumor cell lines and tumour biopsies at much higher levels than in normal pancreatic tissue. Results showed that cannabinoid administration induced apoptosis. They also reduced the growth of tumour cells, and inhibited the spreading of pancreatic tumour cells.

Sources:

All sources can be found at the source. 

Numerous Studies Confirm Cannabis Oil Cures Cancer

Cannabis oil  has been shown to be an effective cancer therapy, and also has abilities to ease the side effects of chemotherapy. The International Medicinal Verities Association put THC hemp oil on a prioritized protocol list, making it the preferred natural cancer medicine.

Here are a few facts about cannabis and cancer you may not know:

  • Marijuana cuts lung cancer tumor growth in half, say researchers at Harvard University who tested the chemical in both lab and mouse studies.
  • Researchers reported in the August 15, 2004 issue of Cancer Research, the journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, that marijuana’s constituents inhibited the spread of brain cancer in human tumor biopsies.
  • The first experiment documenting pot’s anti-tumor effects took place in 1974 at the Medical College of Virginia at the behest of the U.S. government. The results of that study, reported in an Aug. 18, 1974, Washington Post newspaper feature, were that marijuana’s psychoactive component, THC, “slowed the growth of lung cancers, breast cancers and a virus-induced leukemia in laboratory mice, and prolonged their lives by as much as 36 percent.”
  • “Antineoplastic Activity of Cannabinoids,” an article in a 1975 Journal of the National Cancer Institute reports, “Lewis lung adenocarcinoma growth was retarded by the oral administration of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabinol (CBN)” — two types of cannabinoids, a family of active components in marijuana. “Mice treated for 20 consecutive days with THC and CBN had reduced primary tumor size.” (1)

Watch this short video about how Rick Simpson discovered the cure for cancer: cannabis oil.

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U.S. Government Holds Patent to Study Which Shows Efficacy of Cannabinoids as Antioxidants with Neuroprotective Abilities

Did You Know?

The U.S. obtained a patent in October of 2003 titled, “Cannabinoids as antioxidants and neuroprotectants.” Assigned to the U.S. as represented by the Department of Health and Human Services. In this patent it claims that, “Cannabinoids have been found to have antioxidant properties, unrelated to NMDA receptor antagonism” and that this makes cannabinoids useful in the treatment of a wide variety of oxidation associated diseases including those which are age-related, along with inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. (1)

What are Cannabinoids?

This group of active compounds found in marijuana is also referred to as terpenophenolic chemicals. There are a variety of specific cannabinoid compounds found in cannabis, commonly known as THC or tetrahydrocannabinol. These are the active compounds responsible for marijuana’s therapeutic, and psychoactive abilities.

Although the U.S. government holds this patent, officials still deny the benefits of marijuana to medical patients in most U.S. states and in all states on a federal level. Why is the government so unwilling to green light medical research to further prove the medicinal properties of marijuana? Over half of the American population believe that doctors should be able to prescribe the drug, but still the Federal Government does not recognize our rights as citizens to use it as medication legally even though they hold a patent that acknowledges its benefits as an antioxidant with neuroprotective abilities.

References:

  1. http://www.patentstorm.us/patents/6630507.html

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Arizona Medical Marijuana Program to Add Debilitating Medical Conditions

The Arizona Department of Health Services accepts petitions to add debilitating medical conditions to the list of conditions treated under the Medical Marijuana Program in January and July of each year (specific dates yet to be announced). Several of these petitions will go to public hearing.

For articles submitted as a part of these petitions, GO HERE.

If you would like to submit a petition, ADHS will accept them via US mail at the following address:

ADHS
P.O. Box 19000
Phoenix, AZ 85005

Petitions must be complete, and include all components including:

  • A completed submittable cover sheet
  • Description of the symptoms, and physiological effects experienced by the individual suffering from the condition
  • Availability of conventional treatments that treat the medical condition
  • Summary of evidence that marijuana can provide therapeutic relief
  • Articles, scientific journals and reports of the results of research on the specific condition

After submitting your petition, ADHS will notify you within 30 days that your petition was received, and will then be initially reviewed.

With your petition you must prove:

The specified medical condition or treatment of the condition impairs the ability of the individual to accomplish activities of daily living. Marijuana usage provides a therapeutic benefit to an individual suffering from the condition or treatment of the medical condition. ADHS will either add the medical condition to the list of debilitating medical conditions or provide a written notice to you of a denial within 180 days.

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Skin Cancer Awareness Month

May is recognized nationally as the month to raise awareness of skin cancer, the most diagnosed form of cancer in the United States. Arizona is the no 2 in the entire world for skin cancer incidence rates, second only to Australia. It is estimated that over two million people in the US will be diagnosed with skin cancer caused by ultraviolet rays (UV rays). These rays produced by the sun only get more powerful in the summer months. In Arizona, temperatures stay above 100 degrees most of the day, and many people still spend an 8 hour work day outside.

In order to help lower your risk, follow these protective tips:

  • Cover your skin with breathable clothing, and wear a hat with a broad rim
  • Avoid the peak hours for UV rays (10 a.m.- 4:00 p.m.)
  • Stay in the shade whenever possible
  • Wear sunscreen with at least a 30 SPF factor that protects from both UVA, and UVB rays
  • Wear sun glasses that have strong UV protection

Did you know that sunburns can trigger a reaction in the body that continues for up to 24 hours after exposure? To minimize damage, add Britt’s Balms to your sun after-care regimen.

Skin care is important and even though many people don’t have time to pamper themselves, the basics can help keep your skin healthy, and beautiful for years to come. Moisturize skin, limit exposure to weather and pollutants, and avoid damaging products containing parabens, and artificial ingredients. Need sun-protective products? Shop Here!

Source: arizonaoncology.com

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Saftey and Efficacy of Cannabidiol (CBD), a Major Non-Psycotrobic Compound of Cannabis sativa Clinically Tested

Safety and Efficacy of Cannabidiol (CBD), a Major Non-Psycotrobic Compound of Cannabis sativa Clinically Tested

The active components in Cannabis have been studied in hundreds of studies. Recently at the University of Sao Paulo, investigators review over 130 of these papers assessing the impact of these compounds called cannabidiols, or CBDs. CBDs have been shown to have an impact in humans and animals in clinical trials. Studies have shown the effects of multiple cannibinoid extracts were excluded from analysis.

Several studies have suggested that CBDs are well tolerated in humans at high doses. It is also suggested that these compounds are non-toxic in normal cells. Studies also suggest that CBD does not have any impact on physiological functions like heart rate, blood pressure or body temperature, the gastrointestinal tract, or alter psychomotor functions.

A recent study showed safety and side effects of the Cannabis sativa constituent CBD.

Conclusions of the authors reporting the findings say that, “Based on recent advances in cannabinoid administration in humans, controlled CBD may be safe in humans and animals. However, further studies are needed to clarify these reported in vitro and in vivo side effects.”

The therapeutic properties of CBDs are well documented and studies of cannabinoids continue to see what ability they possess for a variety of therapeutic uses like: inflammation, diabetes, epilepsy, cancer, bone density and other health problems. However, CBD is still classified under federal law as a Schedule I drug, prohibited for possession and known to have “no medicinal use for treatment in the United States.”

4/20/2012 in Arizona, Happy Holidays!

Today we share something greater than just a celebration, we support our rights and the rights of us all as Americans. If you are celebrating our freedom today, or just supporting the rights of patients to choose a safe, healthy medicine… I’m right there with you. I believe it in protecting my rights, written in the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic and I hope you do too. Happy Holidays.